Timeline: The Tradition of Mount Sinai’s Arabian Location

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There are well over a dozen proposed locations for Mount Sinai. Some are in Egypt, others in Jordan, and a few in Saudi Arabia. Though scholarly tradition largely holds that Mount Sinai is St. Catherine's in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, there is another unbroken tradition identifying Mount Sinai in Saudi Arabia that dates back to the third century B.C.

Ancient Jewish Tradition

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300 B.C. – 134 B.C.The Septuagint

The Septuagint (the first known translation of the Original Hebrew Pentateuch and following books, known as the Old Testament in the Christian Bible) was translated and circulated among the Alexandrian Jewish population.

Dr. Allen Kerkeslager concluded in a scholarly study that the Septuagint is among the oldest works to state that Mount Sinai is in northwestern Saudi Arabia.

The Septuagint’s version of Exodus says that Mount Sinai is near an ancient city named Madyan, also spelled as “Madian” and “Madiam.” It states that Madyan is the land of Jethro where Moses fled to after killing an Egyptian. Madyan corresponds to a city named al-Bad in Saudi Arabia today and the name still shows up on current maps.

Current Bibles state that Moses went to “Midian,” a broader ancient land that would include Al-Bad.

The Septuagint refers to the specific city of Madyan that would be within the broader territory of Midian. It has also been suggested that Madyan would be referenced in the 3rd century B.C. as a way of referring to Midian overall or that Madyan/Madian/Madiam are alternative spellings of Midian.

Dr. Kerkeslager’s study found that these sources report that Mount Sinai/Horeb is near this city, pointing to Jabal al-Lawz/Jabal Maqla, which are both a short distance from al-Bad.

The Septuagint’s translators also indicate that the Red Sea crossing took place not at a marshy and shallow body of water (Sea of Reeds), but a deep and great sea—the Red Sea itself.

The original Hebrew phrase for this body of water is Yam Suph, which literally translates to “Sea of Reeds.” However, the translators choose the Greek words eruthra thalassa, which translated means “Red Sea.”

Dr. Colin Humphreys, author of The Miracles of Exodus, states that this is a strong piece of evidence in favor of an Arabian location. The translators were well-educated men, and at Alexandria, they were a mere 140 miles away from the inland Bitter Lakes. Surely, they would not have used the Red Sea to designate these smaller bodies of water.

20 B.C. – 40 A.D.Philo Judaeus of Alexandria  

Philo was a Jewish philosopher who was alive in the time of Jesus and lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Philo placed Mt. Sinai east of what is now Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, and south of Palestine. He used the Septuagint as his exclusive source.

In On the Life of Moses, Part IIhe described Mount Sinai as “the loftiest and most sacred mountain in that district in accordance with the divine commands, a mountain which was very difficult of access and very hard to ascend…”

Dr. Allen Kerkeslager writes of Philo in Mt. Sinai in Arabia?:

“In addition to his use of the terms “Arab” and “Arabia,” Philo gives us an even more direct indication of where he believed Mt. Sinai was. He describes the Israelites wandering eastward all the way across the Sinai peninsula to the southern edge of Palestine just before the revelation at Sinai. Philo thus places Mt. Sinai somewhere east of the Sinai peninsula and south of Palestine—in other words, in northwestern Arabia. Philo adds one more detail to our collection of traditions about Mt. Sinai; he says that Moses “went up the highest and most sacred of the mountains in its region.”

Allen Kerkeslager, “Mt. Sinai—in Arabia?” Bible Review 16.2 (2000): 32–39, 52

The last quote above is a reference to Philo’s work in which he states:

“For, having gone up into the highest and most sacred mountain in that district in accordance with the divine commands, a mountain which was very difficult of access and very hard to ascend, he is said to have remained there all that time without eating any of that food even which is necessary for life; and, as I said before, he descended again forty days afterwards, being much more beautiful in his face than when he went up, so that those who saw him wondered and were amazed, and could no longer endure to look upon him with their eyes, inasmuch as his countenance shone like the light of the sun.”

Philo, On The Life Of Moses, 2:70

This is only the reference to the height of what Philo calls Mount Sinai. Philo’s commentary also includes other corroborating descriptions of the Saudi Arabia location for Mount Sinai, such as the path walked by Moses. This piece of evidence is further strengthened by how the Septuagint translators wrote that Jethro “went out” or “into the desert” from Midian in Exodus 18:5.

A.D. 93-94 – Josephus

Titus Flavius Josephus was a Romano-Jewish Scholar born in Jerusalem and a well-respected source of history in the 1st century of the Church. In his work The Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus confirms that Midian was close to the Red Sea from when Moses meets with Jethro:

“….And when he [Moses] came to the city of Midian, which lay upon the Red Sea, and was so denominated from one of Abraham’s sons by Keturah, he sat upon a certain well …”

Titus Flavius Josephus, “Book 2, Chapter 11: How Moses Fled Out of Egypt Into Midian,” in The Antiquities of the Jews (93)

In his accounts, he mentions multiple times that Mount Sinai was the highest peak in the region:

“Now Moses called the multitude together, and told them; that he was going from them unto Mount Sinai, to converse with God; to receive from him and to bring back with him a certain oracle. But he enjoined them to pitch their tents near the mountain; and prefer the habitation that was nearest to God, before one more remote. When he had said this, he ascended up to Mount Sinai; which is the highest of all the mountains that are in that country: and is not only very difficult to be ascended by men, on account of its vast altitude; but because of the sharpness of its precipices also.”3

Titus Flavius Josephus, “Book 3, Chapter 5: How Moses Ascended up to Mount Sinai, and Received the Laws of God, and Delivered Them to the Hebrews,” in The Antiquities of the Jews (93)

“Now Moses, when he had obtained this favor of Jethro, for that was one of the names of Raguel, stayed there, and fed his flock. But some time afterward, taking his station at the mountain called Sinai, he drove his flocks thither to feed them. Now this is the highest of all the mountains thereabouts; and the best for pasturage…”

Titus Flavius Josephus, “Book 2, Chapter 12: Concerning the Burning Bush and the Rod of Moses,” in The Antiquities of the Jews (93)

Regarding the Red Sea crossing, Josephus wrote in Book 2, Chapter 15 of the Antiquities:

They also seized on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was [on each side] a [ridge of] mountains that terminated at the sea, which were impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight; wherefore they there pressed upon the Hebrews with their army, where [the ridges of] the mountains were closed with the sea; which army they placed at the chops of the mountains, that so they might deprive them of any passage into the plain.

Josephus’ Antiquities is one of the most important historical sources for this project and is cited on many of our various chapter pages.

Is It Really a Tradition?

There is admittedly very little in terms of records regarding Mount Sinai’s true location in Jewish history. It seems that the Jewish people did not have a strong interest in maintaining knowledge of the mountain’s location. Rather, interest in this topic seems to be a more distinctly Christian phenomenon.

Pilgrimage to Mt. Sinai does not seem to have been an important means of affirming Jewish identity. Jews had many other ways of affirming a concrete physical connection to Jewish history, including the contemplation of their own biological existence. Later Gentile Christians may have felt more compelled tomake pilgrimages to Mt. Sinai and other concrete sites associated with Israelite history because, unlike Jews, they could not point to their own physical descent to support their claim to being “the true Israel.” Pilgrimage to sites from Jewish history was more of an identity imperative for Christians than it was for Jews.

Allen Kerkeslager, “Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Identity in Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt,” in Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, ed. David Frankfurter (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, 1998), 207.

Ancient Christian Tradition

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A.D. 49 – Apostle Paul

Paul, who described himself as a chief Jew among Jews, and author of two-thirds of the New Testament, refers to “Sinai in Arabia” in Galatians 4:25. The book is believed to have been written approximately 49 A.D.

There is a debate about whether the Arabia he refers to (Arabian Petra) would include the southern part of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, and therefore potentially refer to the traditional Mount Sinai location.

The Greek reads:

“τὸ δὲ Ἁγὰρ Σινᾶ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς·”

The English translation reads:

“Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because she is in slavery with her children.”

At the time Paul wrote this, Arabia was a region on the outskirts of the Roman Empire. According to Glen Bowersock, scholar of Ancient Rome and the Near East, Arabia in the days of the Roman Empire encompassed an area southeast of Palestine.

In his 1983 book Roman Arabia, he states on the first page:

Although the heartland of the Arab nations was what is known today as Saudi Arabia, the Romans gave the name Arabia to a province of their empire which lay south and east of Palestine, in the corner of the Mediterranean world between Syria and Egypt. It comprehended the Negev, southern Syria, all of Jordan, and northwest Saudi Arabia.

When Paul referred to Arabia in the book of Galatians, it would have been within this context and framework of understanding.

In Galatians 1:17, Paul also stated that he traveled to Arabia after his conversion on the road to Damascus.

I did not go up to Jerusalem to see those who were apostles before I was, but I went into Arabia. Later I returned to Damascus. 

New Testament scholar N.T. Wright theorizes that Paul may have gone to Mount Sinai just as did the Old Testament prophet Elijah. In an article titled Paul, Arabia, and Elijah, Wright states that Paul may have gone to Mount Sinai as a part of his conversion, to deepen his relationship with God.

A.D. 185 – A.D. 254 – Origen of Alexandria

Origen was a well-known early Christian author who also associated Midian with Madiam, and placed it east of the Red Sea. [1]

A.D. 189 – A.D. 232 – Demetrius

Demetrius was a bishop of Alexandria in the second and third centuries A.D. He said in regards to Moses:

“And they dwelt in the city of Madiam, which was called from one of the sons of Abraham”

A.D. 260 – A.D. 339 – Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius was an historian and geographer who mapped the “World” in “The Onomasticon.” He described Madiam as follows:

“[It] Lies beyond Arabia to the south in the desert
of the Saracens, east of the Red Sea. From this they are called
Madianites, and it is now called Madiam.”

Eusebius of Caesaria, The Onomastikon, (Concerning the Place Names in Sacred Scripture), trans. G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, ed. Joan E. Taylor (Carta Jerusalem 2003), 70 (Section M, Genesis)

In reference to Mount Horeb, which could arguably be adjacent to Mount Sinai, he stated:

“The Mountain of God in the land of Madiam. It lies beside Mount Sinai beyond Arabia in the desert.”

Eusebius of Caesarea, The Onomastikon, 95. It should be noted that the English translation by C. Umhau Wolf which is available online actually contains a typo, mistranslating Madiam as “Moab”

Dr. Allen Kerkeslager states in his essay on Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Identity (see more below) that in Eusebius’ day, Arabia was a province of the Roman Empire, but that by the time he wrote his account, the border of the Roman province of Arabia was moved northward so that Madiam was beyond the border at that time.

By the time of Eusebius, the major centeters of the Roman province of Arabia had moved northward. The southern border of the province was consequently deliberately relocated northward by detaching the southern region of the province of Palestine. By the fourth century, Eusebius could easily look out from his window in Caesarea and say that the city of Madyan in northwestern Arabia was “beyond Arabia toward the south.”

Allen Kerkeslager, “Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Identity in Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt,” in Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, ed. David Frankfurter (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, 1998), 198.

In Dr. Kerkeslager’s assessment, the fact that Eusebius placed Sinai/Horeb in close proximity to the city of ancient Midian strongly suggests it was nearer to this city than anywhere in the Sinai Peninsula.

A.D 347 – A.D. 420 – Jerome

Jerome was a Latin Philosopher who took part in translating Eusebius’s “The Onomasticon” into Latin.

Jerome also placed Madyan in northwestern Arabia east of the Red Sea. Eusebius had identified Horeb and Sinai as two separate mountains, but Jermoe saw them as one.

How Long Did This Tradition Last?

By Jerome’s time, the “new” theory of Mount Sinai’s location began to develop and proliferate. According to Dr. Allen Kerkeslager, the monastic communities in the Sinai Peninsula took their claim to fame to the world and gradually eclipsed the previously accepted Arabian location.

However, the Arabian adherents seemed to continue for several centuries, according to his research.

 [T]he tradition of locating Mt. Sinai near the city of Madyan apparently persisted in Christian circles until sometime after the Arab conquest. Islamic sources from ca. 700 refer to Christian anchorites who lived in the mountains around Madyan. These anchorites, possibly together with local Jews, may have been the source from which later Islamic tradition received the traditions associating Moses and Mt. Sinai with the city of Madyan.

Allen Kerkeslager, “Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Identity in Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt,” in Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, ed. David Frankfurter (Boston: Brill, 1998), 199.

Kerkeslager further states that the modern town of Al-Bad, which is ancient Midian, is home to an unbroken tradition identifying Jabal Maqla as Mount Sinai that dates back to 250 B.C. with the first mention in the Septuagint.

Ancient Islamic Tradition

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The Quran

The Islamic holy book refers several times to Moses’ father-in-law. “Shu’ayb,” a prophet of the pre-Mosaic period, and later identified as Jethro. He is mentioned several times in the Quran, and the author clearly locates him in the ancient city of Madyan.

A.D. 704 – A.D 770 – Muhammad Ibn Ishaq

Ishaq was an early Islamic historian who collected oral traditions which became an important part of a biography on the prophet Mohammed. About Midian, he wrote:

“The People of Madyan are descendants of Madyan, son of Midyan, son of Ibrahim. Shuaib was the son of Mikil bin Yashjur. In the Syrian language, his name was Yathrun (Jethro).”

Tafsir Ibn Kathir on Quran 7:85 This translation has been modified by this author in order to make it more readable to a popular western audience.

A.D. 898 – Ahmad al-Yaqubi

Ahmad al-Yaqubi was a famous Muslim geographer who lived in the late ninth-century and spoke the following regarding the modern town of al-Bad:

“Midian is a populous, ancient town with many springs, rivers and an abun- dance of gardens, orchards and plan trees inhabited by different ethnic groups.”

Al-Ya’qubi, 1988, 341 as quoted in Dr. Abdul Rahman al-Tayyib al-Ansary, Al-Bid’ History and Archeology (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Education, 2002), 17.

He later quoted earlier Islamic geographers, stating:

…at the cost of the Qulzum Sea, lies the city of Midian, which is larger than Tabuk. Inside the town was the well from which Moses (Peace be upon him) extracted water for the livestock of Shu’aib [Jethro]. But the well is said to be dried up and a house was built in its place, while the inhabitants depended on drinking water from a nearby spring. Midian was named after the tribe of Su’aib. It was a hard place to live, even the trade there was inactive.

A.D. 1100 – 1165 – Al-Sharif al-Idisri

Al-Sharif al-Idisri was a twelfth-century Muslim geographer. Quoting from earlier Muslim geographers, regarding Mount Sinai, he said:

“at the coast of Quzlum Sea, lies the city of Midian, which is larger than Tabuk. Inside the town was the well from which Moses (Peace be upon him) extracted water for the livestock of Shu’aib… Midian was named after the tribe of Shu’aib.”

Al-Idrisi quoted in Dr. Abdul Rahman al-Tayyib al-Ansary, Al-Bid’ History and Archeology (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Education, 2002), 17-18.

Modern Archaeologists, Cartographers, Explorers, and Historians: 1500 – 1900

mount sinai saudi arabia
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1654 – Chez Pierre Mariette

French cartographer Chez Pierre Mariette drew a map of the Arabian Peninsula in 1654, and identified locations for Madian, Sinai Mont, and Mont Oreb. Though the map omits the Gulf of Aqaba, he placed Sinai/Oreb to the east of Madian.

1682 – Frederick de Wit

Dutch cartographer Frederick de Wit also drew a map of the Arabian Peninsula nearly three decades after Mariette. He identified Madian, “Horeb M.”, and “Sinai M.” on his map. Just as with Mariette, the map did not show the Gulf of Aqaba, but de Wit did place both Horeb and Sinai considerably to the east of Madian, roughly corresponding with the Jabal al-Lawz/Jabal Maqla mountain range.

1840s – Charles Beke

In the mid-1800s, Charles Tilstone Beke, an English geographer, traveler, and Biblical critic, traveled to the Sinai Peninsula in what is now the nation-state of Egypt. He looked for evidence of Mount Sinai and the Exodus in the Sinai Peninsula but did not find anything convincing.

In a book compiling his discoveries, published in 1878, Beke found:

When relating how Moses fled from Pharaoh, king of Egypt, he [Josephus] says that “he came to the city Midian, which lay upon the Red Sea, and was so denominated from one of Abraham’s sons by Keturah.” Now we are told in Scripture, that those descendants of the Patriarch were sent into the “east country,” that is to say, into the regions lying to the east of the valley of the Jordan and its continuance south- ward to the Gulf of Akaba, and not anywhere within the peninsula west of that gulf, where Moses’s place of refuge has been so erroneously imagined to have been situated.

Beke concluded that the likeliest location for Mount Sinai would be northwestern Arabia.

He later traveled to northwestern Arabia and found volcanic fields that believed could have been the reported manifestation of fire and smoke on Mount Sinai. Based on his research, he said that Sinai was likely Mt. Baggir, and Horeb was Mt. Ertowa.[2]

Beke was also one of the earliest proponents of a Gulf of Aqaba crossing. Up until the 19th-century, the Gulf of Aqaba was misunderstood by geographers and cartographers. Most maps completely omitted or severely underestimated the Gulf’s true size. Because of hazardous sailing conditions, exploration remained untenable until the age of steam power.

His assertion that the Israelites crossed the Gulf of Aqaba was largely based on the observation that Yam Suph (the original Hebrew term for the Red Sea) was adjacent to Jordan and not Egypt. In 1878, Beke wrote about how stunned he was that the Gulf was misunderstood for so long.

The wonder is, how an error of such moment, and one which was so easy of rectification, should during so many ages have maintained its ground undetected, and, as far as I have the means of judging, even without the slightest suspicion of its existence.

There is no evidence to suggest that Beke was aware of, or examined, Jabal al-Lawz/Jabal Maqla as part of his survey.

1853 – Sir Richard Francis Burton

Richard Francis Burton was an English geographer, cartographer, and writer. He traveled to Arabia in search of gold and the source of Arabian wealth.

According to his records and research, the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula belonged to the ancient Egyptians as early as the Sixth Dynasty (2323-2510 BC[3]).[4]

Midian and Egypt would not have shared this territory and, around the time of the Exodus, Dr. Charles Whittaker found that the Peninsula was a protectorate of the ancient Egyptian empire. This would make it impossible for Mount Sinai to be in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, as the traditional site and some other candidates are.

According to Burton’s research, he didn’t specify Jabal al-Lawz or Jabal Maqla as Mount Sinai, but he did appear to favor an Arabian location. In his works, he quotes Eusebius saying that he assigned Rephidim and Horeb to “Pharan,” and the Mountain of God to Midian.

1885 – Julius Wellhausen

Dr. Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) was a German biblical scholar who is often credited as one of the earliest proponents of the documentary hypothesis.

Regarding Mount Sinai, he wrote a footnote in chapter 15 of his Prolegomena to the History of Ancient Israel that one of the best criteria for determining the mountain’s location would be identifying Midian’s true location.

The site of Sinai (= Horeb?) hardly admits of ascertainment. The best datum would be the sanctuary of Jethro, if we could identify it with Midian (Jakut, iv. 451), which lies on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea obliquely facing the traditional Sinai. 

In chapter 8, footnote 344:1, he further states:

We do not know where Sinai was situated, and the Bible is scarcely at one on the subject. Only dilettanti care much for controversy on the matter. The Midian of Exod. ii. tells us most: it is probably Madian on the Arabic shore of the [R]ed sea. In our passage Sinai seems to be S.E. of Edom; the way from Sinai to Kadesh is by Seir and Paran.

Jabal Maqla lies southeast of the former territory of Edom, east of the ancient city of Midian, which is modern-day Al-Bad.

Contemporary Research & Study: 1900 – Present

Doubting Thomas Research Foundation original photo

1909 – Dr. Paul Haupt

Hermann Hugo Paul Haupt (1858-1926) was an American Semitic scholar and one of the first scholars of Assyriology. In 1909, he stated that “Mount Sinai cannot be located on the Sinaitic Peninsula; it was a volcano in the land of Midian.”

1912 – Dr. Eugen Oberhummer

Eugen Oberhummer (1859-1944) was a German-Austrian geographer who was a professor of historical and political geography at the University of Vienna from 1902-1930. Regarding Mount Sinai, he believed that it was located in the ancient land of Midian, a volcanic mountain we call Hala’-l Bedr.

1910 – 1926 – Alois Musil

Alois Musil traveled to Arabia over several years and investigated the topography and ethnology of the region.[5] He noted the purple “range of Lowz” in his notes (Jabal al-Lawz), and 50 kilometers to the south of it, “the half white and half black mountains of al-Makla and ar-Raha.”[6]

Musil departed from Josephus’ claim that Sinai was the highest peak in the region, as Lawz is higher than Maqla. However, he did maintain a Midianite location for Sinai/Horeb.

“According to all our sources of information, Horeb was situated in the land of Midian.”Musil also stated that “This place must be located in the land of Madian, to the southeast of the modern settlement of al-‘Akaba.”[7]

In 1926, Musil drew up a map of “Ancient Madian.” Next to the city of “al-Bed,” one can see an oasis of palm trees drawn to the east.

Based on the information currently available to us, this could very well be Elim.

1940 – Nelson Glueck

Nelson Glueck was a Jewish archaeologist and rabbi in the 20th century. His archaeological scholarship led to the discovery of nearly 1,500 ancient sites.

In 1940, Glueck wrote regarding the Exodus, “the Gulf of Aqabah is the modern name of the northeastern tongue of the Red Sea, or the Yam Suf as it is called in the Hebrew Bible” (quoted in Glen Fritz, The Lost Sea of the Exodus, p. 10). Identifying Yam Suph as the Gulf of Aqabah subsequently points to an Arabian location for Mount Sinai.

1957 – Harry St. John Philby (Hajj Abdullah)

Harry St. John Philby (Hajj Abdullah) traveled to Arabia and extensively explored the region. He used Musil’s maps and published The Land of Midian in 1957.

He didn’t identify Jabal al-Lawz as Sinai, but he referred to Jabal Maqla as a twin or sister peak of Lawz with its “basalt cap.” He also refers to it as a “basalt pyramid.”[8]

Philby does appear convinced that this was Midian though, the home of Jethro, giving it a connection to Moses.[9] He said that Musil’s claim for Hurab didn’t yield him any evidence, such as inscriptions.

He also found a strong tradition among the population that Jethro, Moses and the Israelites resided in the area. Not only that, but he also wrote that Jabal al-Lawz/Maqla appear to indicate that it was a qualified candidate for Mount Sinai/Horeb. (Joel Richardson, The Land of Midian, p. 222):

From here [the ridge which had the ‘Circles of Jethro’] I had a magnificent view of the whole of the Midian mountain range, with Lauz [Lawz] and its sister peaks in the northeast and Maqla’a very little north of east, with the valley of al-Numair separating the latter from the low ridge of All Marra, extending from east to south-east, where the two peaks of Hurab stood out in front of the great range of Zuhd, which runs down to a point not far from the sea to our southward ….

The spot that held my imagination was the smooth, double-headed, granite boss of Hurab, an obvious candidate for identification with the Mount Horeb of the Exodus…the only candidate for the honor which can claim to have preserved the name…According to Hasballah, the name Hurab applies primarily to the wadi [canyon], while he calls the mountain itself Al Manifa (which simply means lofty).

1984 – Ron Wyatt

Amateur explorer and controversial figure Ron Wyatt claimed to have found evidence of the Exodus in northwestern Saudi Arabia.

Wyatt and his two sons were arrested by Saudi police after illegally entering the country from Jordan. They were held for 70 days before being released, but their photographs were confiscated and the evidence was lost.

Years after Wyatt’s captivity, pictures started leaking to the outside world showing strange things at Jabal Maqla and the surrounding area.

1988 – Bob Cornuke and Larry Williams

Former police officer Bob Cornuke and Wall Street trader Larry Williams visited the mountain in 1988 and were likewise detained and had their evidence confiscated.

Cornuke recounted the journey in his 2000 book In Search of the Mountain of God: The Discovery of the Real Mt. Sinai.

1990s – Jim and Penny Caldwell

Video and photography of the mountain and associated evidence began anonymously leaking out in the 1990s. The source of the unprecedented photos and videos is now known to be Jim and Penny Caldwell, an American couple that worked in Saudi Arabia from 1990 to 1998 and repeatedly visited the area in question.

1991 – Frank Moore Cross

Frank Moore Cross, a Biblical scholar known for his study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and tenure as a Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages at Harvard University, favors the theory that Mount Sinai is in northwestern Saudi Arabia. He said there was also some possibility of it being in southern Jordan. In 1992, regarding the theory of Mount Sinai’s location, he stated:

[T]he consensus is that ancient Midian was south of Eilat on the Saudi side… The notion that the ‘mountain of God’ called Sinai and Horeb was located in what we now call the Sinai Peninsula has no older tradition supporting it than Byzantine times.

Cross would not guess which particular mountain is Mount Sinai, but held out Jabal al-Lawz as a distinct possibility.

He said that the Saudis would not permit him and a colleague to excavate in the area for the American Schools of Oriental Research and British School of Archaeology.

1998 – Dr. Allen Kerkeslager

Dr. Kerkeslager wrote a scholarly article titled “Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Identity in Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt,” in Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, which was edited by David Frankfurter. He affirms the Arabian location for Mount Sinai based on an in-depth study of Eusebius’ writings.

In the book, he stated:

Because Eusebius located Mt. Horeb and Mt. Sinai next to one another, he must have believed that both were in northwestern Arabia near the city of Madyan.

Allen Kerkeslager, “Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Identity in Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt,” in Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt, ed. David Frankfurter (Boston: Brill, 1998), 199.

Dr. Kerkeslager noted in the article that many Western scholars have been hesitant to adopt the view that Mount Sinai is in Saudi Arabia, and that seems to be more because of the “inertia of one stream of scholarly tradition.” This is in spite of the fact that Biblical and post-Biblical evidence suggests an Arabian location for Mount Sinai, east of the Red Sea, and not in the Peninsula.

Based on his research, he concludes that it is “inexcusable” to ignore the evidence of the Exodus in northwestern Saudi Arabia, and at least as much attention ought to be devoted to it as has been devoted to St. Catherine’s mountain, in spite of the rather scant evidence at the traditional site.

If one seeks the “Mt. Sinai of Jewish tradition,” one will henceforth have to seek a mountain near Al-Bad. 

Kerkeslager, 200.

Dr. Kerkelsager was one of the first Western academics to seriously undertake scholarly research on this subject.

2002 – Dr. Lennart Möller

In 2002, Dr. Lennart Möller published his tome, The Exodus Case, an extremely detailed science-based investigation into the theory. Möller is a professor of medical sciences in Sweden with a special interest in archaeology, Egyptian history, and marine biology.

After gaining rare access to the mountain and the sites that may relate to the Exodus account, Möller endorsed Jabal al-Lawz and Jabal Maqla as the likeliest candidates for Mount Sinai/Horeb.

Möller also concluded that the likeliest crossing point for Moses and the Israelites was from Egypt’s Nuweiba Beach into northwestern Saudi Arabia via an underwater land path in the Gulf of Aqaba. He also took part in diving expeditions to explore this land path and believes there is evidence of the destroyed Egyptian army in the coral.

2002 – Al-Bid’ (History and Archaeology)

Several archaeologists from the Saudi Ministry of Museums and Antiquities published a detailed book about the history of the city of Al-Bid (also known as Al-Bad). In the book, the researchers found a great deal of evidence pertaining to the Exodus in the area surrounding this city, which was once Midian.

In the preface of the book, Dr. Abdul Rahman al-Tayyib al-Ansari writes about Al-Bid:

Certainly, some inportant events occurred in the western coastal area of the Gulf of Aqaba which are related to Prophet Moses and his exodus with the Israelites from the lakes eastern Egypt, where he crossed by a miracle to the land of Sinai, the land of (manna) and (quails), and the twelve wells which were gushed out by Giod in the desert of Sinai one springwell for each tribe.

Dr. Abdul Rahman al-Tayyib al-Ansari, et. al., Al-Bid’ (History and Archaeology), (Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Education, Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums), 2002, 10.

What’s odd about the book’s conclusion is that the researchers appear to consciously downplay the evidence of the Exodus in this region. We are unsure why this is, though it may be a part of a larger effort to keep the evidence hidden from outside view.

As one of Ryan Mauro’s former jihadist contact stated in our documentary, all the jihadist fighters knew that Mount Sinai was in Saudi Arabia, and that the Kingdom was keeping the evidence hidden to prevent it from becoming an object of idolatry.

Under Islamic law, objects that are used for idolatrous worship must be destroyed, even holy sites. We believe this may be at least one of the Kingdom’s justifications.

2003 – Dr. Charles Whittaker

In 2003, Charles Whittaker published his doctoral thesis, “The Biblical Significance of Jabal al Lawz,” for his Ph.D. from Louisiana Baptist University. His 225-page investigation considered over 20 candidates for Mount Sinai and thoroughly reviewed historical accounts, scholarly opinions throughout time, archaeological surveys, old maps, and satellite imagery.

Whittaker concludes that Jabal al-Lawz “is the best candidate for the Biblical Mt. Sinai.” His doctoral thesis greatly assisted the Doubting Thomas Research Foundation in documenting this theory.

2007 - 2016 – Dr. Glen Fritz

Dr. Glen Fritz has published several academic works regarding the location of Mount Sinai and the Red Sea Crossing. In 2007, he published the first edition of The Lost Sea of the Exodus, with a second edition being published in 2016. In this book, he provides an unparalleled level of detail regarding the true location of the Red Sea, identifying it as the modern-day Gulf of Aqaba.

In The Lost Sea of the Exodus, he deals with the wide variety of misconceptions about the nature of the Red Sea crossing. These misconceptions date back thousands of years, and these faulty understandings affected the proposed location for Mount Sinai. New technology has led to a better understanding of the region’s geography, but certain misconceptions continue, and new ones have arisen to justify the traditional theory. Dr. Fritz addresses these problematic theories to show why the Red Sea crossing took place at the Gulf of Aqaba.

In 2016, he also published Fire on the Mountain: Geography, Geology & Theophany at Jabal al-Lawz, which details his on-the-ground observations and study of the land, including topographical and geological examination. He explains his findings and how they line up with the Biblical account.

2016 – Dr. Miles Jones

In 2016, Dr. Miles Jones, a historical linguist with expertise in Thamudic inscriptions and the history of the alphabet, published, The Writing of God: Secret of the Real Mount Sinai. He has not visited the sites in-person but has analyzed pictures of inscriptions found in the area.

Jones determined that the inscriptions are Thamudic and proto-Hebrew. He interprets them as referring to the Exodus events. He believes these inscriptions show the birth of literacy happening in the area, with letters replacing pictographs.

2017 – Rabbi Alexander Hool

Rabbi Hool published his book on the alternative location theory for Mount Sinai in 2017. The book, Searching for Sinai: The Location of Revelation, explores Jewish sources that offer clues for the location of Mount Sinai. He does not believe that Jabal Maqla is Mount Sinai, but does place the mountain in Saudi Arabia, in the ancient land of Midian, with Jabal Harb being his proposed location.

Rabbi Hool places Midian further south on the Arabian Peninsula than many scholars do, closer to Mecca. He asserts that when Moses met Aaron at Mount Sinai in Exodus 4:27, Moses had to have been traveling from another location a fairly long distance from the mountain. Our research shows that Midian was not this far south though, but lay upon the Gulf of Aqaba, with the capital at what is modern-day al-Bad.

Rabbi Hool nonetheless agrees with the Arabian theory for the mountain’s location.

2017 – Present – Doubting Thomas Research Foundation

The Doubting Thomas Research Foundation traveled to Saudi Arabia multiple times over a period of two years to see the alleged evidence and document it thoroughly. This website is the result of those trips and thousands of hours of editing, writing, researching, and interviewing. The Foundation believes that the tradition identifying Mount Sinai in modern-day Saudi Arabia has the most Biblical and extra-Biblical support.

In Summary

From roughly 250 B.C., when the Septuagint translation was produced, right to this very day, there has been a tradition that supports the theory of Mount Sinai being located in Saudi Arabia. Among the three major monotheistic traditions—Jewish, Christian, and Muslim—all three point us to the same place, the tallest mountains in the range just outside of the city of al-Bad, known today as Jabal Maqla/Jabal al-Lawz.

Bibliography

[1] Origen of Alexandria, Selecta Genesim (Select Comments on Genesis) PG 12.120, as referenced in Allen Kerkeslager, “Jewish Pilgrimage and Jewish Holy Space,” in Pilgrimage and Holy Space in late Antique Egypt, ed. David Frankfurter (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1998), paperback edition 2015, 196.

[2] Charles Whittaker, “The Biblical Significance of Jabal Al-Lawz” (diss., Louisiana Baptist University, 2003), 72.

[3] The Ancient Egypt Site. 6th Dynasty (2323-2150), https://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/old-kingdom/6th-dynasty/index.html

[4] Whittaker, 73.

[5] Ibid., 76.

[6] Alois Musil. The Northern Hegaz. (New York: American Geographical Society. 1926), 269, 298.

[7] Ibid.

[8] John Philby, The Land of Midian. (London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1957), 210, 215.

[9] Whittaker, 83.

Last updated July 15, 2019.

7 thoughts on “Timeline: The Tradition of Mount Sinai’s Arabian Location”

  1. In 1978 Ron Wyatt and his two sons dove in the Gulf of Aqaba off the shore of Nuweiba Beach observing coral encrusted chariot parts and indicated his interest in Jebel El Lawz being Mount Sinai as written about in Rene Noorbergen’s 1982 book “Treasures of the Lost Races.” In 1984 The Wyatt’s were actually arrested and held for 78 days for investigating Jebel El Lawz. After convincing the Saudis of their true intent and showing them evidence they were released. The Wyatts returned home and gave witness to their discoveries in an interview with Bill Kurtis on CBS Morning News, April 17, 1984. Ron was invited back to the site in 1985 and so convinced the Saudis of the authenticity of the evidence for the Hebrews encampments around the mount that they immediately fenced off the entire area as an archaeological reserve.

  2. Yam Suph should really be read as Yam Sof. The Hebrew vowel “vav” can be read as the sound “o” or “oo” depending on the punctuation. Since at that time there existed no punctuation markings in the Hebrew script, I really think we should be reading the Hebrew not as Yam Suph but as Yam Sof. Why Yam Sof? Because in Hebrew these two words translate as “Sea End”, which is exactly what the Gulf of Eilat or the Gulf of Aqaba is. It is a finger like projection of water from the Red Sea into the Sinai. It is where the Red Sea ends, therefore Yam Sof, or Sea End.

    1. We discuss some of the translations of the word on our Red Sea Crossing page. We agree that a vegetative translation for Yam Suph, such as “Sea of Reeds,” does not accurately fit the broader context of the passages that use this term.

  3. Prophet Muhammad
    The last messenger in the Bible
    by
    Kais Al-Kalby

    تحية للجميع

    Prophet Muhammad the last messenger in the Bible
    Author: Kais Al Kalby

    Average review score:
    This book is amazing!
    Kais Al-Kalby is an expert on the ancient languages, cultures and history of the Biblical time period. His extensive study of so many languages gives him an expertise in this matter that is hard to match. Languages including Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Sanskrit, the old Persian, and many others are discussed along with those culture’s many religious beliefs as written in their oldest scriptures. You will love this book as you sit with your own scriptures to learn what the original revealed texts laid out for the seeker of Truth and Light. Al-Kalby makes it extremely easy and fascinating, too, by showing word-for-word translations side-by-side with several languages. He uses both transliterations and the actual script of the languages for your comparison and further investigation. He hides nothing! This gives an unusually refreshing understanding of the depth of the original meanings and the poetry of the times. Whatever your religion, you will love this book. And I know the book has been printed at least 8 times, so there must be plenty out there to get a hold of. Do it! You will be amazed, enlightened, and you’ll never look at your scriptures the same again.
    You don’t lose by reading a book
    Just try reading this book,you won’t lose any thing.I think when someone reads it just looking for the truth,he or she will find it.But when you read it forget that you hate muslims and Islam.Try to bring your bible and the quran with you.Don’t forget to bring also Mauris Bocaille’s book:the quran,the bible,and sciences,so you can hear the truth from a muslim auther and a christian one.

    In the name of God, the most Gracious, the most Merciful,
    And Peace to all Who follow Guidance: …
    2 October 2005

    (I would love to include more information for your benefit but I already see that I have written too much…)
    The Last Words of Jesus!?
    I present to you my letter and I hope that its importance will be of concern for you. As you all know there are writings that Christians write that are misleading and corrupted in their own religions that contain blasphemous information about Mary and Jesus. Through this false information these writers are obtaining money, fame, and support by politicians and Christian leaders. This imagery of the Christian religions is being exposed in the American media as valid academic information; the academic portrayal of these faiths is the opposite of what Christians believe. No response has been made by these Christian leaders about the literature that is being corrupted with invalid information.
    Christian writers are not the only ones involved in the corruption of Jesus but Jewish institutions are playing in this game as well. And yet again, none of these writers are being stopped nor objected to. So it seems that the Christian leaders are more in love with these liars, more than God; alas, you, Christian leaders turn your faces to us Muslims with disgust and abhorrence when we actually respect, love, and believe that Jesus is in the highest ranking of our creed. Muslims no longer are we if we don’t accept and love Jesus; Islam is the only religion who has such high regards to Jesus and again we are being condemned and attacked for being Muslims. We are angry and upset for this degrading literature against the beloved Mary and Jesus.
    In 630 A.D., there were 60 priests who visited Prophet Muhammad who welcomed them with hospitality; so much welcome was prevalent that the Prophet spread his robe upon the ground for his guests to sit on. This reception has not been given back to the Muslims; is this how we should be treated? Is this your thank you and gratitude towards us? Yet the Prophet recommended that we treat Christians well; and he said: “Thmee (Christians and Jews) I will advocate in the Last Day Judgment.” Do we get the same treatment as we do to you?
    Prophet Muhammad sent his decibels to Ethiopia and he told them that you will be treated fairly by the just king; the king heard the recitation of Sura Mariam and broke down and wept, including the other priests in 626 A.D. The king accepted Prophet Muhammad and embraced Islam and through this conversion, Africa became a Muslim continent. The king and his priests are acknowledged in the Qur’an (Sura 5). Isn’t this worthy of attention and respect?? And the king said, what Muhammad brought Jesus did.
    No book in the world has mentioned Mary 19 times as does the Qur’an; there is a whole chapter in her name. Then what about Jesus? It will include more. Then the fruit of these teachings has converted Americans in the millions (varying from different nationalities, class rankings, and so forth) even having touched the Fore Fathers (Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin) have spoken positively about the Prophet Muhammad. The Constitution of the United States and the laws has included most Islamic teachings to make the laws of the country a great one.
    Then, in 1935, in recognition of the major people that have impacted the Constitution and the laws, the Supreme Court, the highest ranking in the government displayed nine statutes of the great lawmakers in human history, with one statue portraying the Prophet Muhammad. In honor of the Prophet, they said his qualities were being a (philosopher) that was peaceful, just, and powerful. Is this not a great example for the leaders and thinkers of America? How can it be fair that Muhammad is placed on the highest pedestal in the Supreme Court and then is being assaulted with condemnations and disrespect?
    Jesus’ mission would be incomplete if he did not prophesize and say the last words about Muhammad therefore Jesus’ statement is contained in the Gospel. Even the Torah and the prophecies of the prophets before Jesus talk about Muhammad. If already you accept Moses as a prophet, John the Baptist as a prophet, Daniel as one, and so forth, what stops you to accept the Prophet Muhammad as a prophet?? With the Prophet having one billion and a half followers from different nations, with his teachings still being widespread, do you not think that the Bible would acknowledge such a great and influential man? If not, there is something missing in the teachings of Jesus or the Bible.
    If you would like more clarification about Muhammad being mentioned in the Bible, you may order a book entitled: The Prophet Muhammad the Last Messenger in the Bible to further explain and elaborate this information. The author of this book is ready for any questions, comments, or discussion and please do not hesitate for anything. Do
    not feel as though you will lose your dignity and this will show how serious you are about your religion. I would love to include more information for your benefit but I already see that I have written too much; I appreciate you taking the time to read this and please feel free to contact me.
    Kais Al-Kalby
    tel 7346447449 email: amuslimmi@yahoo.com

    The reason this candidate resently became Muslim was because he read this book (Prophet Muhammad the Last Messanger in the Bible). By his reqeust, we will not give his name to you for future poltical reasonning. For more information on contacting Kais Al-Kalby on this subject, read on.

    Salamualaykum,
    Kais Al-Kalby (AMCA)
    *if this is offensive or you’re not interested, delete this mail*

    AMCA announces:
    The eighth edition of the book, PROPHET MUHAMMAD THE LAST MESSENGER IN THE BIBLE, written by Kais Al-Kalby has been published. The book is written in seven parts and is 736 pages. It has references in the English, Hebrew, and Arabic Bible, Torah, and the Qur’an showing the reference side by side. Includes maps, pictures, documents, and references. Over a thousand people have converted to Islam upon reading this book. This is an academic book and is not meant to criticize any ethnic groups or religions or political parties and is being used in different colleges and universities. Follow up the life and mission of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) prophecies.

    The parts include:
    1) God, (Allah) the one and only Savior
    2) World History before Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
    3) Prophecies of Prophet Muhammad
    4) Prophet Muhammad the last Messenger in the Bible
    5) Science in the Qur’an
    6) Why they have chosen Islam?
    7) General Information about Islam
    For more information on this book, please visit the website http://www.amca.9f.com or call7343698100.
    To order the book, e-mail amuslimmi@hotmail.com. The price of the book in the US is $25 and out of the US is $29.99 and is cashier’s check or money order (both are including S&H).

    Kais Al-Kalby has worked solely for Dawa throughout the world for more than 25 years, and is available for and interested in giving lectures for any educational or religious purposes. Please contact us for an appointment for the lecture. The contents of his speech will contain the following:

    1)”Was Jesus really the last prophet in the Bible?”
    2)”Israel state from Euphrates to the Nile?”
    3)”The Promised Land (Israel?)”
    4)”Chosen Nation (Israel?)”
    5)”The Holy Land (Israel?)”
    6)”Why the Solomon Temple Disappeared”
    7)”Ishmael (Son of a slave?)”

    Thank You,

    tel 7346447449

    With Allah’s Name, the Merciful Benefactor, The Merciful Redeemer

    History of Al Aqsa Mosque

    “The Tunnel of King Je-hoia-chin and Its Religious Significance”
    by Kais Al-Kalby with Emad J. Meerza
    The patriarch of all the believers of Allah (God), i.e. Jews, Christians, and Muslims is Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham, PBUH). He built the Kaba in Makkah with his firstborn son Ismael (PBUH). This was an order from Allah (SWT) that Ibrahim and Ismael (PBUT) construct this Holy House of Allah (SWT) as a place of worship for all the believers on earth. Ismael (PBUH) was 17 at the time he and his father built the Kaba. Prophet Muhammad (PB UH), a descendent of the Prophet Ismael (PBUH), would come nearly 2,500 years after Kaba was built and repurify it as a holy place of worship according to the teachings of the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). As stated in the Torah and in the Holy Quran “all the generations will be blessed through I brahim (PBUH)” (Genesis 12 and 18 Holy Bible, Chp 2 Verses 123-141 Holy Quran).
    In Jerusalem, Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) also established a place of worship. This place would later be known as The House Of Allah (God), or Beteyel. Forty years after the construction of Kaba, Prophet Ibrahim expanded this place of worship. Isaac (PBUH), Prophet Ibrahim’s younger son, worshipped in Beteyel, but also made journeys to Kaba in Makkah for Hajj (Pilgrimage) as did Ibrahim (PBUH). Jacob (PBUH) the second son of Isaac (PBUH), extended Beteyel as a place of worship for all the believers of Allah (God) in the region. The natives of the land, the Palestinians, believers in the teachings of the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH), also worshipped in Beteyel or The House Of Allah (God). Ibrahim (PBUH), referred to Beteyel as “Masjid Al-Aqsa”, which means the farthest place of worship of the One God. Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH), was stating that Masjid Al-Aqsa was the farthest place of worship west of Kaba in Makkah.
    Some years later, Prophet Joseph (PBUH), the son of Jacob (PBUH) attained a high position of power in Egypt, he sent for all of his family to come live with him in Egypt away from the poverty of Palestine. There were 33 in all, Jacob (PBUH), his children and his grandchildren (Genesis 46 in the Torah). Because there was no one left from Jacob’s (PBUH) tribe to care for Beteyel, Jacob (PBUH), intrusted care of Beteyel or Masjid Al-Aqsa to the natives of the area, the Palestinians. This was acceptable due to the fact that the natives were also followers of the Patriarch, the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). The Israelites remained in Egypt for four hundred years as slaves to the Egyptians with no connection to Palestine, the land from which they immigrated (Genesis 15 Verse 13-17). This choice was not forced on them, they simply chose to leave Palestine for the sake of the wealth and riches in Egypt.
    In the time of Prophet Moses (PBUH), the Israelites were still slaves to the Egyptians. Allah (God) ordered Moses (PBUH), after freeing the Israelites from bondage, to lead them to Palestine. The Israelites rejected this order from Allah (God), and preferred to live in the desert of Sinai, rather than to sacrifice themselves for the sake of Allah (God). They believed this land belonged to the Palestinians, the natives of the area.
    For fourty years, the Israelites wandered in the desert of Sinai. A new generation was born, and from it came forth Prophet David (PBUH), he would lead this generation of believers to Palestine. Prophet David (PBUH) established his kingdom in part of Palestine, and controlled Jerusalem. His son, Prophet Soloman (King Solomon) (PBUH) rebuilt Masjid Al-Aqsa with the help of the natives, and next to it he built the ruler’s palace. After Prophet Solomon’s death, his two sons divided his kingdom amongst themselves. Each son established his own kingdom and each had its own capital. From both of these kingdoms, Allah (God) raised prophets. According to Jewish history, these kingdoms existed for nearly two hundred years.
    In 586 B.C., King Je-hoia-chin of Jerusalem, saw that he might lose his kingdom. He was the last Jewish king who tried to resist the Babylonians in Jerusalem. In his struggle, his kingdom was surrounded by the Babylonians who cut off supplies from the outside world. When the inhabitants of Jerusalem ran out of food and water, the king made a tunnel to enable his soldiers to escape and retrieve supplies from the outside world. Part of the tunnel collapsed, the resistance led by King Je-hoia-chin was defeated, and the Babylonians took over Jerusalem. The tunnel used by King Je-hoia-chin, is the same tunnel being excavated today in Jerusalem. After the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem, they took its inhabitants as slaves to Babylon.
    The Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar destroyed what King Solomon had built in Jerusalem (Kings 2 Chapters 24 and 25 of the Bible). According to the word of God in the Torah, the Israelites were made to be slaves in both the Nile and in the Euphrates.
    After seventy years of slavery in Babylon, King Cyrus of Persea gave the Israelites their freedom. At that time very few of the Israelites returned to Palestine. These few Israelites worshipped only in The House Of Allah. For generations, the Israelites took care of Beteyel or Masjid Al-Aqsa. During the period when the Roman Empire was in constant battle with the Persean Empire, the Israelites aided the Perseans, and benefited when the Perseans had control of Jerusalem. Because the Israelites supported the Persean Empire as spies and in other ways, the Romans treated them as enemies of the Roman Empire.
    In 70 A.D., the Romans destroyed (burned) Beteyel, and converted it into a place of Roman idol worship (Jupitor,etc.). In 315 A.D., when the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, the Romans had no regard for Beteyel. It became a place were the inhabitants of Jerusalem, including the Jews threw their garbage. The Jews no longer considered Beteyel a Holy Shrine.
    The Persean Empire defeated the Romans in 614 A.D., the Jews were now able to worship where they wished, but chose not to worship in Beteyel or Masjid Al-Aqsa. The Perseans controlled Jerusalem until 624 A.D. The Jews, who were in a position of power during this period, tortured the Arab Christians. Jerusalem was in need of a just ruler. Both the Christians and the Jews had suffered under different empires, and both knew that the Holy Scriptures promised the coming of a ruler to save them from all this unjust torture and aggression.
    The Israelites were awaiting the coming of the Messiah, who would be king and ruler, and would defeat all the evil empires, as promised by Allah (God). The only Prophet in history to have accomplished this task, was Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers defeated all the empires of the time, establishing the Kingdom Of God (Islamic State) throughout the region. This included Jerusalem as promised by Allah to the Muslims (Daniel 2 Verse 44 and Mathew 21 Verse 43). The Israelites had tried to fulfill this prophecy in 165 B.C., under the leadership of Judah Makabi. Within three years, he was defeated by the Romans, who regained complete control of Jerusalem. Prophet Jesus (PBUH), was also unable to accomplish this task mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. It was the Prophet from Arabia, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who fulfilled this prophecy.
    In 621 A.D., the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ascended to the heavens in the night known as Israa and Mirag to the Muslims (Malachi 3 Verse 1-14). In that night, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) led all the Prophets of Allah (PBUT) in prayer in the Holy Mosque (Masjid Al-Aqsa). For this reason, Masjid Al-Aqsa is a holy place of worship for the Muslims, along with Kaba in Makkah and The Prophet’s (PBUH) Mosque in Medina. These are the three most important Mosques to the Muslims.
    In 637 A.D., the Christian leader of Jerusalem, Snaifors, realized through the holy Scriptures (Zeckariah 9 Verses 9 and 10), that the second leader of the Islamic State, Umar ibn Al-Khatab, fits the description of the one who would open Jerusalem and free it from the evil empires. Snaifors surrendered peacefully. Umar ibn Al-Khatab and the Muslims, after securing Jerusalem, again established Masjid Al-Aqsa as a holy place of worship. Both the Christians and the Jews were pleased with the arrival of Umar and the Muslims, and with the just rule under the Islamic State.
    In the eleventh century, the European Christians in the crusades, tortured the Jews and the Muslims. They burned the Jews in the their Temples and they burned the Muslims in Masjid Al-Aqsa. The European Christians even tortured the Arab Christians and destroyed their churches. The Jews fled to Indulis (Spain), to receive protection under Islamic rule or a Muslim society. In 1189 A.D., the leader of the Muslim army, Salah Aldeen Al-Ayobi expelled the European Christians from Jerusalem, and returned Jerusalem to Islamic rule. The Christian, Jews, and Muslims lived in harmony under Islamic rule.
    In 1948, with the help of the western powers, the Jews were able to fulfill the promise of the British foreign minister, Bill Ford. This promise was made in 1917 regarding the Jews’ return to the holy land, Palestine. In the time of Moses (PBUH), when ordered by Allah (God) to return to Palestine, the Israelites disobeyed the will of Allah (God). Once the Jews again controlled Jerusalem, they expelled and tortured the natives of Palestine from their land, and the area returned to a state of unrest (Haggie 2 Verse 7-9).
    In the 1980’s, the Israelis started an archaeological project in the area of the Dome of the Rock (Masjid Al-Aqsa). They began excavation claiming that they were searching for the Temple Of King Solomon. They were unable to locate the Temple Of King Solomon, but in the process discover ed the tunnel of King Je-hoia-chin. The Israelis claimed that the search was a success only because they discovered the collapsed tunnel of King Je-hoia-chin, which is in no way related to the Temple of King Solomon. This tunnel has no religious significance, it only has historical significance. The entrance was then sealed and today has been reopened without justification. The significance to the Muslims is well understood, they fear for Masjid Al-Aqsa and its foundation, and that in some way this excavation can damage the Holy Mosque. The significance of this dig to the Jews is not yet understood, clearly there is no religious significance. Prime Minister Netanyahu has said this openly is his news conference at the White House. The question thus remains, why if this archaeological dig can lead to so much unrest, do the Israelis insist that it remain open?
    Conclusion
    First – all the children of Israel left Jerusalem in the time of Jacob by their own will.
    Second – they were unwilling to support Moses (PBUH) and return to the holy land for the sake of Allah (God).
    Third – King Je-hoia-chin’s tunnel has no religious significance to the Jews, it is merely a historical site. The Israelis continued excavation of the tunnel, may result in damage to Masjid Al-Aqsa.
    Fourth – the Israelites abandoned Beteyel in 614 A.D., while under Persean rule.
    Fifth – they took Palestine by force and aggression in 1948, and subsequently tortured many Palestinians in the process.
    Finally – the Jews do not appreciate all the just treatment that they received from the Muslims throughout history, and as we see today, the Israelis have little concern for the Muslim people, their places of worship, and their property.

    For more information you can obtain the book titled, “Prophet Muhammad The last Messenger In The Bible,” written by Kais Al-Kalby. This can be ordered by mail, fax, or phone. Write to, P.O. Box 901412 Palmdale, CA 93550. Fax: (805) 266-0450, Phone: (805) 538-9762.
    Please, we ask anyone who receives this article, to distribute it to whomever may be interested in reading it or benefit from it. If you are able to publish it, please know that you have the author’s permission to do so. With everyone’s help, we hope that this information can be read by many. May it please Allah (SWT). Peace, mercy, and the blessings of Allah be upon you all!
    ALLAH: The One God
    SWT: The Glorified And The Exalted
    PBUH: Peace Be Upon Him
    PBUT: Peace Be Upon Them
    References – The Old Testament , The New Testament, and The Holy Quran
    ***********
    Responses by Kais Al-Kalby to the questions raised by the national president of the Zionist Organization of America (Morton Klein), through the interview with Mr. Muhammad Saleh journalist for Al-Mujala based in London, England.

    Quran was written after the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh):
    In Hadith related to Islamic history, it explains in detail how to collect, gather and organize the Holy Quran. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), in his 23 years of Prophet Hood, had with him 48 scribes (writers), who together wrote the Quran directly from the mouth of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). One of his writers was with him at all times, his name was Zaid Ibn Thabit Al-Ansary. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the unlearned (did not read or write) prophet written about in the Bible in Isaiah 29,verses 11-18 (12- and the book is delivered to him that is not learned , saying, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned). The book (Quran) was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), it was sealed to all the other prophets (pbut). He spoke to the children of Israel in another tongue (Arabic) as mentioned in Isaiah 28, verse 11 (for with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people). The Quran was revealed in stages as needed in the life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to answer all the questions of his days and for all time. The material that had been used by the scribes to record the Quran was deerskin, shoulder blades of camel, and it was memorized by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his companions (pbuh). Thousand of his companions memorized the Quran for recitation and for preservation. Angel Gabriel (pbuh) visited Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) every year in the Holy month of Ramadan to rehearse the Quran. The year of the prophet’s death, the angel came to him twice in order to rehearse with him the Quran. Gabriel (pbuh) instructed the Prophet (pbuh) how to organize the Quran, all the verses and the chapters, Prophet Muhammad then instructed his followers how to organize the Quran. Prophet Muhammad and his companions practiced the Quran daily in their worship, and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had kept one copy of the Quran, written on different materials, in his wife Hasfa’s room. When Prophet Muhammad died, Abu Bakr, the first Caliphah after Prophet Muhammad (pbuh); gathered all that was written in the hand of the companions. Abu Bakr then had it written in one material, deerskin, and organized it as was instructed by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). This first volume was compared with the original copy that was kept with Hafsa in the house of the Prophet (pbuh). Abu Bakr did this in 632 A.D., the third Calipha Uthman Ibn Afan, due to the increase in the Islamic State, as evidenced by all the nations that have entered the Islam during and shortly after the death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), i.e. Russia, Persia, Africa, etc., needed to produce many copies of the Quran so that these nations could properly learn and recite the Quran. This evidence supports the fact that the Quran was written in the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and Uthmans copies were produced shortly after the death of the Prophet (pbuh). Until today there remains one Holy Quran, identical all over the world, not a single word varies in all the books.
    Today we know that the Torah of Moses (pbuh) was destroyed in the time the Babylonians captured and enslaved the Jewish people in 586 B.C.
    According to the Jewish, Ezra was enlightened by God, and received the Torah Miraculously. After which, the Torah was reproduced by Ezra’s memory. Still today we find two Torah’s written in Hebrew, but differ in some areas. The Samaritan Jews, who live in Nablus, deny all the prophets after Moses (pbuh) except Joshua (pbuh), and they claim that their Torah is the original Law of Moses. The Samaritan Jews reject the state of Israel. The other Jewish sect, who support the state of Israel, claim that their Torah is the original written in the hands of Moses (pbuh)
    Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) changed the Qibla because he couldn’t convince the Jewish:
    Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), while living in Makkah, during his prayer, faced Masjed Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem by the command of Allah (swt). Between him and Masjed Al-Aqsa, stood the Kaba in Makkah, there were no Jewish people. When Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) migrated to Medina, for 17 months he still faced Jerusalem in his prayers. This action greatly upset the Arab Pagans, who used this against the Prophet, stating that he had abandoned the home of his father; Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was still acknowledging Masjed Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, as the House of Allah. Allah (swt), in order to glorify Kaba, ordered Prophet Muhammad and his followers (including those in Jerusalem), to direct their prayers to Kaba in Makkah, and changed Qibla for all time. This includes the Israelites as mentioned in Haggie 2, verse 6-9. This was a test from Allah (swt), to the people of the Book (Bible), the followers of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and all of humanity
    Sura Bani Israel, Al-Isra is related to Masjid Al-Aqsa not Jerusalem:
    The event of Isra and Mirage in 621 A.D., is thus acknowledged by the Zionist, who believe that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) suddenly came to Masjed Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem and returned to Makkah in the same night as mentioned in Malach1 3, verses 1-14. In this event Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) led all the prophets of Allah in prayer. Thus, all the nations on earth were blessed by Allah (swt) as promised to Prophet Abraham (pbuh) as mentioned in Genesis 18, 18 & 19. Genesis 12, verse 3 states, “And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed”. The significance of Isra and Mirage is that it enable the prophet (pbuh) to fulfill the prophesy in Genesis 15, 18-21, establishing the Islamic state from Euphrates to Nile which includes Palestine.
    Al-Medina Al-Munuarra used to be Jewish should be divided:

    6000 years prior to the time of Prophet Abraham (pbuh), many various Arab tribes lived in the Arabian Peninsula. By Allah’s command, Ishmael (pbuh) was brought to this area before Isaac (pbuh) was born. Ishmael’s children would become princes in this area as mentioned in Genesis 17, verse 20. The first son of Ishmael, Nebajoth, became the prince of the city of Medina, as mentioned in Genesis 25, verse 13-18. One of his descendants was named prince Yathroub, and eventually Al-Medina became known as Yathroub. Later in history another descendant of Ishmael (pbuh), Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), changed the name of Yathrob to Al-Medina Al-Munuara (The City of Light). In 315 A.D., when the Roman Empire converted to Christianity, the Levi tribe of Israel with urgency, migrated from the Holy Land of Palestine to the barren desert of Arabia. They migrated to this region, awaiting the coming of the last Prophet or Messenger of Allah from Arabia, as mentioned in Isaiah 21, verses 13-17. They settled in Medina, and their hopes were that the last Prophet would arise from among them. While living in Medina, the Levites taught the descendants of Ishmael (pbuh) about the coming of the final messenger as foretold in the Torah. When Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) arrived in Medina, the descendants of Ishmael (pbuh) accepted him and rejoiced at his coming, although the majority of the Levites chose not to follow him. Their decision mirrored their reluctance to follow the son of Mary (pbuh). Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was from their brethren, the descendants of Ishmael (pbuh) as mentioned in Deuteronomy 18, verses 18 & 19. The Levies were disappointed that he was not a descendent of Isaac (pbuh) and they chose to leave Medina. Clearly, the Levities were not the original inhabitants of Medina, nor did they ever govern Medina, but merely lived there for a time awaiting Allah’s final Messenger. Their departure also supports their temporary interest in this part of the world.
    Al-Jihad with the Muslims is for the sake of Jerusalem and Israel:
    The word Jihad means to struggle; to give and to sacrifice in the cause of Allah (swt) sacrificing ones self for the sake of Islam (a just and right cause) is the ultimate from Jihad. Jihad is justified when needed to defend Islam from its enemies or to fight those who drive you out of your land, as mentioned in the Holy Quran, in Sura AlMumtahina, Ayas 8 & 9. These are the conditions required for Jihad. As stated in the Holy Quran, in Sura AlBaqara, Aya 190,”Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors”. Thus, the Muslims are fulfilling the order of God as mentioned in the Bible Ezekiel 21, verses 25-27 (and thou, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have and end ..), and Isaiah 65, verse 11-16 (Therefore will I number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter: because when I spake, ye did not hear; but did evil before mine eyes, and did choose that wherein I delighted not ..),as well as in the Quran in Sura Bani Israel. The followers of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) will be led by Jesus Son of Mary and Muhammad Al Mahdi, who will kill the Antichrist (The false Messiah), in the city of Ledd in Palestine, and will establish peace in Palestine as mentioned in the prophecies of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
    Who is the first in Jerusalem the Jewish or the Muslim?
    The first people who lived in Jerusalem were the four Arab tribes of Amorites, Canaanites, Jebusite, and Girgashites. These tribes lived in Jerusalem before Prophet Abraham (pbuh) immigrated to Palestine. They were rulers and kings in this region, according to Genesis 15, verses 18-21. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) fulfilled this prophesy when he united all the ten tribes mentioned in the Bible, under the banner of Islam and established the Islamic State from Euphrates to Nile, this included Palestine.
    Jerusalem was never mentioned in the Quran but mentioned in the Torah 600 times:
    According to the Jewish the Torah means the five books revealed to Moses (pbuh) in Mt Sinai. The Bible contains the Torah and the books of the prophets. The Torah itself never mentions Jerusalem or the Holy Land, it has been mentioned not by name but as the “Promised Land”. The first name given to the city Jerusalem was Jebus, it was named after the tribe of Jebusites who came from the Arabian Peninsula. The name Jerusalem is related to the God of peace, this name is not related to the children of Israel. The Torah mentions Palestine five times in Genesis 26 and Exodus 13 and 23. The important issue is not how many times the word is mentioned on the Torah or the Quran, but goes back to the meaning, occasion, purpose, reason, etc. Jerusalem in the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was known as Eilia. It has been mentioned in the Holy Quran as the Holy Land or the Blessed Land. Those who read the Quran know this relate to Jerusalem and the region around it. The Holy Land means it is related to God, that God made it Holy, and that it is not related to any nation or people. God gives this land to any people He chooses according to His plan and takes it away at any time. Although Jerusalem is not mentioned in the Quran, it does not imply that it is related to the Jewish, or that it is not considered Holy to the Muslims. For example, the prophet Joshua (pbuh) is mentioned in the Torah but not in the Quran, yet the Muslims were told to believe in his prophet hood. In Genesis 16 & 25, it mentions the three names of the three wives of Prophet Abraham (pbuh); Sarah, Hagar & Keturah. Though these names are not mentioned in the Quran, the Muslims still accept them as stated in the Torah. The Torah mentions in different places the description about Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), the last messenger who will unite the ten tribes under one banner (Islamic State) as in Genesis 15 verses 18-21 and Genesis 49 verse 10. This prophet will open Makkah (Par an) in the year 630 A.D., accompanying him 10,000 saints (companions) as mentioned Deuteronomy 33, verse 2.

    Prophet Muhammad
    The last messenger in the Bible
    by
    Kais Al-Kalby

    To the Respected Reader,
    THE GREATEST TEACHER
    (I write this letter to you to prove my opinion of religion with you from the Bible and accurate history and I urgIraqe you to share your religious opinion with me. My mind is open for any religious or historical opinions without any hesitation. The Christians, like the muslims, have a mission to separate their religions from each other This is the most peaceful way to understand each other, and this is the mission of all the prophets and their righteous followers. We muslims follow Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) who once said that one who bothers the Themee (christians and jews) has bothered him. We muslims also have been waiting for the messiah (Jesus) to settle the differences between the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. We believe we are living in a time near his return.)
    The United States of America–one of the greatest countries built by the greatest founders that established a great system of law from the greatest teachers including the greatest of teachers–Muhammad. This country exalted his name by including his image in 1935 A.D. in one of the greatest places–the Supreme Court. The greatest kings of his time glorified and followed him. For example, the Christian King of Abyssinia(Ashama the son of alhur), the Jewish king of Yemen (Bathan and his son who later became the king as well) , and all the Christian Arab kings followed him regardless of him not being of royalty and only by his letters in the year 626 A.D. These letters were not imposed by force nor by threat. These kings followed and believed him because of the proof of their Holy Scriptures (Torah and Gospel), and they did not lose their position..

    An example of these instances was with the Coptic King of Egypt(Geroge the son of Matthew). He exalted Muhammad (peace be upon him) by offering him the best of what he had–the daughter of a priest (Maria) to become a servant/slave for Muhammad, but rather, Muhammad glorified this gift and honored the king by marrying Maria instead of making her a slave. This story circulates back to the greatest grandfather–Abraham (peace be upon him). In reference to Gen 20:6-8, the king of Egypt(Abimelech), to satisfy Abraham and Sarah and please God, he offered Abraham the princess, Hajar, to become his slave. Similarly, Abraham glorified his gift and had her become his wife as mentioned in Gen 16: 3.

    Because Abraham migrated from Ur ()Gen15:7. to the Palestinian wilderness(Kadesh), he owned nothing but his own tent.They now call the area of Kadesh with the name Negev. He bought a well for seven sheep and that location in the wild became named Beir Saba’ (Seven sheep)Gen21:29-34,22:9,26:33-34. All his children, including Isaac and Jacob, lived in this location without ever owning anything, except the tent and the well. The children of Jacob (Israel) all moved to Egypt because of good living according to Gen 46. There, the later generations of the children of Israel lived as slaves from Phaoroh’s rule as says in Gen15: 13-17. When they lived in Palestine, they did not own any of it. When they lived in Egypt, they did not own any of it. When they lived by the Euphrates, they did not own any of it, as well. Also in history records, they became slaves after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel from the Babylonian army.
    Only through Abraham (peace be upon him), all nations will be blessed Gen 12:2-3 and 18:18-19. Muhammad (Shiloh) in Gen 49:10 was the first and only to unite the ten tribes between the Euphrates and the Nile in Gen 15: 18-21. And all of the relatives of Abraham (maternal and paternal and direct offspring) are all recognized today as Muslims which include these ten tribes and the six children of Keturah, the third wife of Abraham (peace be upon him) as mentioned in Gen 25: 1-4. And the ten lost Israeli tribes, Habakook 3: 7, are now situated in present day Afghanistan (Taliban), and the children of Esau who was the brother of Jacob mentioned in Gen 27: 1, have become muslims. The followers of Muhammad(the son of Ismael who was the first son of Abraham) have been blessed from, Allah (God) and Muhammed fulfills the promise/prophecy for Ismael in Gen 17: 20 and Matthew 7: 20. Today the followers count from 1.5 billion from various nations, tribes, colors, and races from all over the world including America.The golden time of the relationship between Jews and Muslims was during Islamic Spain(Andalusia), according to the Jewish. This situation also occurred with the Christians.They both lived for centuries in the Muslim countries, where they never lost any of their rights, lived in harmony, and were never forced to convert to Islam.
    The children of Levi migrated to the Arabian Peninsula awaiting a prophet from Arabia as mentioned in Isaiah 21: 13-17 which would be the only unlettered prophet as stated in Isaiah 29: 11-12 with his name being Mahmad as in Hagai 2: 6-9. They were waiting for the prophet that would establish the Kingdom of God as in Daniel 2: 44, and with him will be ten thousand saints to open Makkah in 630 A.D. as in Det 33:2 and this prophet will be coming from Makkah (Baca) as mentioned in Psalms 84:1-7. They were looking for the prophet who would establish a pure society that had never been established before as in Isaiah 42: 1-21. He was the only one that was offered the highest of gifts, royalty, wealth, and other various worldly temptations, and yet, he rejected them all. He did not differ from the prophets before him, he was also a shepherd and easily rejected worldly temptations and died peacefully and poor, leaving behind his teachings and the Quran. For anyone that would like to learn more about him, the resources are endless and available considering he was one of the greatest teachers in the world.
    Thank you for your time.
    AND ANY ONE NEED INFORMATION PLEASE READ THE BOOKS:”A Deadling Misunderstanding:A Congressman’s Quest to Bridge the Muslim-Christian Divide” By former Congressman Mark Siljander8:35 PM 10/21/2012 and”The Prophet Muhammad the Last Messanger in the Bible” by Kais Al-Kalby AMUSLIMMI@YAHOO.COM TEL: 734-6447449

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    Kais Alkalby

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